With the continued (and well-deserved) attention being directed to appropriate antimicrobial prescribing, as well as the crucial role of epidemiologic tracking of infectious disease, the ability to make a specific microbe-level diagnosis has become increasingly important. The standard of care in most hospitals for community-acquired pneumonia—a common reason for antimicrobial use—is to use guideline-concordant therapies based on the most likely etiology. However, by definition, guidelines are one size fits all and should be tailored to specifically fit the individual patient and to direct therapy narrowly at the pathogen causing the pneumonic process. A recent study from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, provides important insight into the pathogen ecology of community-acquired pneumonia.1
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