On August 15, 2015, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MOHCDGEC) was notified about a case of acute watery diarrhea with severe dehydration in a patient in Dar es Salaam. Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El tor, serotype Ogawa, was isolated from the patient’s stool and an investigation was initiated. MOHCDGEC defined a suspected cholera case as the occurrence of severe dehydration or death from acute watery diarrhea in a person aged ≥5 years, or acute, profuse watery diarrhea with or without vomiting in a person aged ≥2 years in a region with an active cholera outbreak. A confirmed cholera case was defined as isolation of V. cholerae O1 from the stool of a person with suspected cholera. Tanzania’s first reported cholera epidemic was in 1974 with intermittent outbreaks since then; the largest epidemic occurred in 1997, with 40,249 cases and 2,231 deaths (case fatality rate [CFR] was 5.5%) (1).
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