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Smallpox Toolkit
Smallpox Toolkit




Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The pox part of smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.

There are two clinical forms of smallpox. Variola major is the severe and most common form of smallpox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. There are four types of variola major smallpox: ordinary (the most frequent type, accounting for 90% or more of cases); modified (mild and occurring in previously vaccinated persons); flat; and hemorrhagic (both rare and very severe). Historically, variola major has an overall fatality rate of about 30%; however, flat and hemorrhagic smallpox usually are fatal. Variola minor is a less common presentation of smallpox, and a much less severe disease, with death rates historically of 1% or less.

Smallpox outbreaks have occurred from time to time for thousands of years, but the disease is now eradicated after a successful worldwide vaccination program. The last case of smallpox in the United States was in 1949. The last naturally occurring case in the world was in Somalia in 1977. After the disease was eliminated from the world, routine vaccination against smallpox among the general public was stopped because it was no longer necessary for prevention. Source: CDC

Regulations & Guidelines

(1) Smallpox

(2) Vaccine Overview

(3) Smallpox Overview for Clinicians

(4) Bioterrorism

(5) Crisis & Emergency Risk Communication (CERC)



MedlinePlus  Smallpox

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Best Practices




Key Learnings as of September 2015

CDC has a detailed plan to protect Americans against the use of smallpox as a biological weapon. This plan includes the creation and use of special teams of health care and public health workers. If a smallpox case is found, these teams will take steps immediately to control the spread of the disease. Smallpox was wiped out through specific public health actions, including vaccination, and these actions will be used again. Source: CDC

Related Articles

(1) Smallpox: References

(2) News from MedlinePlus



(1) Questions and Answers About Smallpox Disease

(2) What We Learn About Smallpox from Movies - Fact or Fiction

(3) Frequently asked questions and answers on smallpox

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Instructional Resources

Smallpox Vaccine Administration Video


From MedlinePlus

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Patient Resources


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